Eco-Innovation and Innovation Level of the Economy as a Basis for the Typology of the EU Countries
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The study addresses the issue of eco-innovation and innovation in the European Union countries, which is important from the perspective of the sustainable development paradigm. Innovation constitutes a significant factor related to socio-economic development, and it is crucial in constructing the competitive advantage of enterprises, regions, and countries.

Nowadays, an increasing importance is attached to eco-innovations, which takes into account the ecological perspective ensuring the reduction of environmental burdens. The purpose of the conducted research was to assess the diversity among the European Union countries regarding the situation related to eco-innovation and innovation, which is focused on the typology of the EU Member States taking a holistic approach to innovation, i.e., considering not only economic but also environmental and social performance. The methods of multivariate statistical analysis, with a particular emphasis on classification methods, were used in the research. A holistic overview of innovation results from the combination of findings based on the research was carried out within the framework of the Eco-Innovation Observatory and the European Innovation Scoreboard. The study covered 28 European Union countries in the period 2013–2019. As a result of the conducted analyses, four classes of the EU Member States were identified (Leaders of Eco-Innovation and Innovation, Moderate Eco-Innovators and Catching-Up Leaders of Innovation, Poor Innovators, The Poorest Eco-Innovators and Innovators).

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